General maintenance of the hottest X-ray machine i

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General maintenance of X-ray machine in use

the user of X-ray machine should not only understand the technical performance, structural principle, installation and operating procedures of the machine; In order to give full play to the efficiency of the machine, prevent the occurrence of faults and extend the service life, we should strictly abide by the operating procedures, correctly master the use methods and be good at doing the daily maintenance work carefully. And ensure the safety of machines and people

I. maintenance of mechanical parts

1. The diagnostic table and supporting X-ray tube dynamometer are also classified by the maximum force value applicable to the structure and sample of a UTM experimental machine. According to the bearing of the column moving part of the ball, its flexibility should be often checked for excessive friction, and the bearing track should be often coated with lubricating oil or diluted vaseline to increase its flexibility and reduce wear

2. The electroplated parts of all parts should be prevented from rusting and should be wiped with common oilcloth; The paint spraying or baking parts should be strictly prevented from fire baking and bumping to prevent the paint skin from falling off

3. The steel wire of each hanging part should be regularly checked for wear and "broken strand" phenomenon. If there is such phenomenon, it should be replaced immediately to ensure safety

4. The sensitizing box in the gastrointestinal film rack should be handled with care to avoid bumping and deformation. When the fluorescent screen is not in use, it should be covered with black cloth or black paper to avoid direct sunlight or light, and it should not be used under normal conditions. Generally, the current of the perspective tube is 3~4 Ma, and the tube voltage is 55~65kvp; If the condition is too high, it is easy to cause fatigue or discoloration of the fluorescent paper. If the brightness of the fluorescent screen decreases significantly, the reason should be checked. If the fluorescent paper is aging, it should be replaced in time

5. When the electric diagnostic table is moving vertically or horizontally, the position of its limit switch should be checked frequently. When the motor is rotating, do not leave the power switch or cut-off button, so as to cut off the power immediately in case of accidents

6. Always check the technical status and accuracy of the material testing machine of each component to see if the fixing screws, nuts and pins are loose. If they are loose, tighten them in time

7. The bed surface of the diagnostic table should be kept clean and dry. It is best to put a sheet on the bed surface. During gastrointestinal fluoroscopy or photography, the barium vomited by the patient should be removed in time

8. When the electric diagnostic table is connected with the X-ray tube in an upright or horizontal position, the brakes on the column holding the X-ray tube ball should be completely loosened, and the position and angle of the X-ray tube and high-voltage cable should be paid attention to, so as to prevent the X-ray tube ball from being crushed or the electric wire from being twisted

9. When the machine is not used in Shandong Province, which not only has Wanhua, Dongyue, Luxi and other new chemical material giant enterprises with an annual output value of more than 10 billion yuan, the X-ray tube should be placed at the lowest position, so that its window is attached to the bed surface, and the fixators on the column should be tightened. Cut off the power supply of the diagnostic table, place the fluorescent screen frame at the lowest position, and lock it with a retainer

II. Console maintenance

console is the general hub for the control and adjustment of each sub circuit and auxiliary circuit of X-ray machine. Its circuit is very complex, so frequent maintenance is very important

1. the console should be placed in an airy, clean and dry place, avoiding humidity, watering, high temperature and sunlight exposure

2. Open the front and rear wall panels regularly (for example, 3-6 months) to check and remove dust inside. The important thing to check is whether each contact of the relay has electric erosion, blackening, bending deformation, poor contact and other phenomena; Whether the connection of each wire is loose, detached, disconnected, displaced, etc; Whether the plug-in components are not in close contact, and whether the components are blackened and melted; Check whether the movable clamps for adjusting the resistance are loose

3. Pay attention to whether the indexes of the power voltmeter, kilovolt meter and milliammeter are normal during work. If there are high, low, trembling, rushing, out of zero position, excessive pointer friction and other phenomena, stop using immediately, find out the cause, and then reuse after treatment

4. each knob of the console has a positioning device. Do not rotate too hard to prevent dislocation, damage, poor contact, or even twist. When the contact position inside the adjustment is inconsistent with the mark position on the console, it should be repaired in time

5. Whether the autotransformer is the total power supply of each circuit is generally installed under the console. It is a transformer with few turns, and its inter turn current is large. When checking the console, check whether there are too many screws, sundries or dust between the turns of the autotransformer. If any, it should be cleaned in time

6. always check whether the console protective grounding is good. During the inspection, use an ohmmeter to measure whether the console ground wire is connected with the shell and the external ground wire. When the grounding is good, the resistance value between them is very small

7. After the console is powered on, first adjust the power supply voltage regulator so that the pointer of the power supply voltmeter often points to the corresponding area, so as to ensure the normal operation of all components. Generally, wait 1-2 minutes after power on before perspective or photography, so that the elements that should be heated can be fully heated

8. After the machine is used, cut off the power supply and set all knobs on the control table to the lowest position

III. maintenance of high voltage generator and combined head

1 In order to protect the insulation performance of the insulating oil installed in the high-voltage generator and the machine head, it is generally not allowed to open the observation window and loosen the fixing screws around at will, so as to prevent the oil from absorbing moisture or falling dust and reduce the insulation performance. Note: the strength level of superior products shall not be less than mu15

2 When it is necessary to replace the new oil, get the assistance of the local power department to check the performance of the new oil, and require its insulation strength not less than 25000 volts/2.5 mm; The oil insulation strength in the combined head should be more than 30000 V/2.5 mm

3. When installing or replacing the high-voltage rectifier tube or replacing the X-ray tube with the machine head, it is necessary to wipe the outer wall of the rectifier tube or X-ray tube with a dry cloth dipped in ether to prevent the insulation performance of the insulating oil from being reduced

4. During work, you should often listen to whether there is abnormal sound in the head of the high-voltage generator during irradiation. If there is a squeak or slap, you should stop using it immediately, find out the cause and deal with it before continuing to use it

5. The filament voltage of the high-voltage rectifier does not need to be measured frequently, but it can be measured again after the power supply condition changes greatly or after a period of time, so as to ensure that the filament heating data meets the requirements and maintain the output balance of the four tubes

6. If the X-ray machine room is not a wooden floor, it is best to place the high-voltage generator on a special wooden seat for moisture insulation

7. When checking any internal parts of the high-voltage generator, the wiring of the high-voltage primary must be removed first. It is absolutely forbidden to inspect any parts under high pressure; At the same time, it is absolutely forbidden to lift high-voltage parts or internal parts of the machine head out of the box for high-voltage test

8. The high-voltage generator with full wave rectification still has static charge just after the power is cut off, so when touching the high-voltage parts, there will be instantaneous electric shock discharge. Therefore, the touch inspection must be carried out after the machine is cut off for a few minutes after the charge gradually disappears. If there is a high-voltage capacitor, discharge it first! Touch and check again

9. The high-voltage socket of the high-voltage generator must be filled with dehydrated Vaseline or insulating oil to prevent air gap discharge. However, if the continuous operation is too long or the room temperature is high, the vaseline or insulating oil will expand and escape due to heating. At this time, the plug must be pulled out, the original vaseline or insulating oil must be wiped clean, wiped dry with ether, and then coated with dehydrated Vaseline or injected with insulating oil before use

10. The high-voltage generator or combined machine head must have a good grounding wire. Always use an ohmmeter to measure whether its shell, console shell and external grounding wire are connected, and tighten the grounding bolt

11. Since the X-ray tube is installed in the combined head, vibration or collision should be avoided as far as possible. When the super longitudinal fluorescent screen or the horizontal arm of the column moves up and down, it should not be forced too hard, and the moving speed should not be too fast, so as to prevent the X-ray tube from being vibrated

12. The X-ray tube of the combined machine head generally has small power, small box, less oil, and weak heat dissipation. Therefore, the use specification of the X-ray tube should be strictly observed in use, and the heat dissipation of the machine head should be often paid attention to; Do not work continuously for too long to prevent damage caused by overheating of the positive electrode surface of the X-ray tube, or breakdown of high-voltage components due to overheating of oil and reduction of insulation strength. When the room temperature is high in summer, ordinary electric fans can be used to help the nose dissipate heat

13. Always observe the nose window. If bubbles are found, they should be discharged in time. If there is oil leakage or oil leakage, they should be handled in time

IV. maintenance of high-voltage cables

1. The surface of high-voltage cables should be kept clean and should not be affected by moisture, freezing, heating and pressure. Moisture in the cable makes the water penetrate into the interior, which reduces the insulation and is easy to be broken down; If it is frozen, the colloidal hard layer is easy to crack and discharge; Heat is easy to make it absorb water and expand and deform; Compression will destroy the metal layer and protective layer

2. it is necessary to prevent the insulating oil from eroding the high-voltage cable, because the insulating oil has a strong corrosive effect on the rubber

3. do not over bend the high-voltage cable. If it is excessively bent, the capacitive charge formed between the core wire and the metal at the bend will be concentrated, so it is easier to be broken down by high voltage at the bend

4. The filler in the high-voltage cable plug is mostly made of rosin, asphalt and paraffin insulating oil. It often flows out of the X-ray tube end due to heating and melting, so it should be checked in time. If there is such a situation, it should be handled in time

5. The X-ray tube sleeve is grounded by the metal layer of the high-voltage cable. Always pay attention to whether the fixing rings at both ends of the cable are fastened with the X-ray tube and the high-voltage generator. If you find squeaking electrostatic discharge sound at high voltage, you should first check here

6. If the high-voltage plug has traces of high-voltage breakdown, the light one can scrape out the core wire with a knife and then use it again, and the serious one must be replaced with a new one

v. maintenance of X-ray tube

1. X-ray tube is the main component of X-ray machine, and it is also the most delicate and fragile component prone to failure. Therefore, try to prevent vibration or collision during use or transportation. The main weight of the fixed anode X-ray tube is at the anode end, so the anode should be placed at the lower end during use or transportation

2. When the X-ray machine works continuously, it should be used according to the allowable heat capacity of the X-ray tube, with necessary intermittent cooling time, and the temperature of the tube sleeve surface should not exceed 50~60 ℃

3. Sufficient insulating oil should be kept in the X-ray tube sleeve; Always observe whether there are bubbles in the pipe sleeve through the window. If there are bubbles, exhaust with deep oil in time

4. If fluorescence is found in the tube sleeve during irradiation, it should be distinguished whether it is the fluorescence caused by the glass wall or the ionization discharge caused by the reduction of vacuum; The fluorescence intensity of the former increases with the increase of Ma, and the discharge phenomenon of the latter intensifies with the increase of tube voltage. The fluorescence of the glass tube wall does not affect the use. Mild glow discharge is a sign that the X-ray tube is about to be damaged

5. When high voltage occurs, you should often listen to whether there is abnormal sound in the tube. If there is a discharge sound, stop using it immediately and reuse it after treatment

6. Always pay attention to whether the focus of the X-ray tube is in the center of the window through the window, or observe it through fluorescent paper and sensitizing paper at a close distance. If there is not a circular light shadow, it is proved that the exit of the X-ray tube is not in the center of the window, which will affect the effect of fluoroscopy, photography or treatment. The tube sleeve must be removed to restore the X-ray tube to its normal position

7. When replacing a new pipe, if the model is different from the original pipe, in addition to paying attention to the overall dimension (length and diameter), fixation

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